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Section 171 of GST – Anti-profiteering measure
(1) Any reduction in rate of tax on any supply of goods or services or the benefit of input tax credit shall be passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices.
(2) The Central Government may, on recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute an Authority, or empower an existing Authority constituted under any law for the time being in force, to examine whether input tax credits availed by any registered person or the reduction in the tax rate have actually resulted in a commensurate reduction in the price of the goods or services or both supplied by him.
(3) The Authority referred to in sub-section (2) shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions as may be prescribed.
Analysis and Updates
The objective of this section is to ensure that with the introduction of GST, taxable persons are not getting excessive profits, but shall pass on the reduction in price to the consumers.
The registered person is expected to reduce the price on account of availment of input tax credit or reduction in tax rates. An authority would be notified for this purpose, who would exercise powers and discharge functions in a prescribed manner.
Anti-Profiteering Rules (Rule 122 to Rule 137) as per Chapter-XV of CGST Rules, 2017 as notified by Central Government vide Notification No. 10/2017-Central tax dated 28-Jun-17 w.e.f. 1-Jul-17 which provides for Powers and Duties of Anti-Profiteering Authority and Compliances of Orders Passed by the authority.
On 16th November, 2017, the Union Cabinet has approved the establishment of the National Anti-Profiteering Authority. This is against the backdrop of reduction in GST rates for various goods and services effective from 15th November, 2017 after the 23rd GST Council Meeting on 6th November, 2017.
The newly established mechanism empowers the affected consumers to apply for relief to the Screening Committee in their state citing that the reduction in rates or increase of input tax credit has not resulted in a commensurate reduction in prices. Upon examination by the State Level Screening Committee, the Screening Committee will forward the application along with its recommendations to the Standing Committee. In case, the incident of profiteering relates to an item of mass impact with ‘All India Ramification’, the application can directly be made to the Standing Committee. After forming a prima facie view that there is an element of profiteering, the Standing Committee will refer the matter for detailed investigation to the Directorate General of Anti-Profiteering, CBEC which will report the finding to the National Anti-Profiteering Authority. If the authority confirms the necessity to apply the anti-profiteering measure, it can order the business to reduce its prices or return the undue benefit along with interest to the recipient of goods or services. If the benefit cannot be passed on to the recipient, it can be ordered to be deposited with the Consumer Welfare Fund. In certain extreme cases, a penalty on the defaulting business entity and even an order for cancellation of GST registration may be issued. Its constitution aims to bolster the confidence of consumers to get the benefit of reduction in GST rates.
Department of Consumer Affairs allows change in MRP on unsold stock prior to implementation of GST till 30th September 2017
On account of implementation of GST w.e.f. 1st July, 2017, there may be instances where the retail sale price of a pre-packaged commodity is required to be changed. In this context, Ministry for Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution has vide Circular No. WM-10(31)/2017 dt. 4th July 2017 allowed the manufacturers or packers or importers of pre-packaged commodities to declare the change retail sale price (MRP) on the unsold stock manufactured/ packed/ imported prior to 1st July, 2017 after inclusion of the increased amount of tax due to GST if any, in addition to the existing retail sale price (MRP), for three months w.e.f. 1st July 2017 to 30th September, 2017. Declaration of the changed retail sale price (MRP) shall be made by way of stamping or putting sticker or online printing, as the case may be.
It is also clarified that ‘for reducing the Maximum Retail Price (MRP), a sticker with the revised lower MRP (inclusive of all taxes) may be affixed and the same shall not cover the MRP declaration made by the manufacturer or the packer, as the case may be, on the label of the package’.
Use of unexhausted packaging material/wrapper has also been allowed upto 30th September, 2017 after making the necessary corrections.
The phrase “the increased amount of tax due to GST, if any” means “the effective increase in the tax liability calculated after taking into consideration extra availability of input tax credit under GST (including deemed credit available to the traders under CGST)”
Thus, the declaration of new MRP on unsold stock manufactured/packed/ imported prior to 1st July 2017 should not be done mechanically but after factoring in and taking into consideration extra availability of input tax credit under GST (including deemed credit available to traders under proviso to subsection (3) of section 140 of the CGST Act,2017).
Decisions of National Anti-Profiteering Authority:
- An application was filed before the National Anti-profiteering Authority alleging that the reduced rate of tax under GST regime was not passed on to the applicant. The application was preferred on the grounds that rate of tax applicable to motor vehicle in pre-GST regime was 51% which was reduced to 29% in GST regime and such reduced tax rate benefit was not passed on to the applicant. The Authority perusing the details of value and tax charged made an observation that applicable rate of tax in pre-GST regime was 31.254% and not 51% as claimed by the applicant. Accordingly, it was observed that the applicant was only entitled for the tax rate benefit of 2% only which was rightly passed on to the applicant by way of reduction in sale price. As such, it is held that no additional benefit on account of ITC is required to be paid by the respondent and therefore, the application was dismissed as not valid. On these lines, the Authority held that the respondent has not contravened the provisions of Section 171. [Sh. Dinesh Mohan Bhardwaj vs. M/s Vrandavaneshwree Automotive Private Limited reported in 2018-VIL-01-NAA]
An application was filed before the National Anti-Profiteering Authority on the grounds that the benefit of reduced rate of tax was not passed on to the consumers of ‘India Gate Basmati Rice’ since, there is an increase in MRP on the advent of GST which may have led to increase in the margin of the Respondent. The application was examined by the Standing Committee on Anti-Profiteering and was forwarded to the Director General Safeguards (DGSG) for detailed investigations. Upon perusal of the detailed report of the DGSG and the returns filed by the Respondent it was observed that the GST rate of tax applicable to such product is 5% which was at 0% in pre-GST regime. The input tax credit was available to the Respondent in the range of 2.69% to 3% as a percentage of value of taxable supplies and post implementation of GST the purchase price of paddy is also increased. Upon such observations, the Authority dismissed the application on the grounds that the increase in MRP of the product is attributable to the increase in rate of tax and increase in purchase price of paddy and is not on account of non-passing of the GST benefit to the consumers. [Kumar Gandharv vs. KRBL Ltd., reported in 2018 (5) TMI 760 – National Anti-Profiteering Authority]
Another important concern that is raised is whether this section applies only in respect of ‘transition provisions’ or will it continue to be applied to transactions initiated in GST regime. While section 171(1) does not appear to limit the scope of anti-profiteering to transition pricing, the effect of rule 137 appears to be limiting. Although the anti-profiteering authorities is intended to operate in respect of transition pricing, experts believe, that although not this authority, power to inquire into profiteering by registered persons is not out-of-bounds by the Proper Officer himself. Care must be taken to address questions about profiteering especially when there is a rate reduction. Reference may be had to decision of Hon’ble SC in CCE, Pune v. Dai Ichi Karkaria 1999 (112) ELT 353 wherein it was held that cost of production and assessable value (in the context of Central Excise law) have not immediate correlation but, availment of credit or discontinuation of credit has an immediate effect on the cost of production. This principle does not become inapplicable even though GST does not consider ‘assessable value’ instead it considers ‘transaction value’.
There is no such provision in the erstwhile tax laws. Similar provisions are there in other countries.
Q1. Who will constitute the authority for anti-profiteering measure?
Ans. The Central Government, on recommendation of the Council,.would notify.
Q2. What is the responsibility of the authority?
Ans. To examine whether:-
- a. Input tax credit availed by a taxable person have resulted in commensurate reduction in price of goods/ services;
- b. The reduction in price on account of reduction in tax rate has actually resulted in a commensurate reduction in price of goods/services.
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